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Project Starfish-
High Altitude Thermonuclear Detonations; 
Missiles Launched from Johnston, Island.  Map

Starfish Prime
Map of Islands
Russian EMP
Op~Plumbbob

1859 Solar Event



Shot as seen from Johnston, Island
EMP induced Aurora over Hawaii
EMP: Electro Magnetic Pulse;  HEMP: High altitude Electro Magnetic Pulse;  NEMP: Nuclear Electro Magnetic Pulse
High Altitude Thermonuclear Shots Blind Radars and Interrupt Communications.
 .
Seen from Kwajalein, Atoll 1500 miles away.
Still Champion, the Mighty Vacuum Tube
 Nature's Neon turned on by EMP
The Humble Transistor didn't stand a chance
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 Anecdotes:
Right after WWII, during one Nevada test, circuit breakers 90 miles away were tripped; thus giving early hints of EMP.
Nuclear EMP
In the 1964 presidential election, Johnson ver Goldwater, there was a campaign issue of U.S. preparedness against the U.S.S.R. nuclear threat. The Goldwater side asserted that we were vulnerable to EMP. The Johnson Administration claimed there was no such thing as EMP. At the same time, the IEE's (IEEE) technical journal, Spectrum, just happen to publish an article, written by several Bell Labs engineers, on how to harden telephone communications systems against EMP. 

The article showed how a repeater building could be constructed using interconnected conductors (rebar) in the building's construction such that they acted as a "squirrel cage rotor," as in an A.C. motor--a "shorted turn." This was covered by continuous copper Faraday shielding, allowing absolutely no exposed openings. Additionally, there were buried triple shielded coax in conduits coming and going from the building, with four #8 copper cables buried adjacent to the conduits. 
 

In point of fact, EMP is real. A high altitude nuclear blast is the most damaging to electronic devices, as well as, communications. The faster the derivative (di-dt) of the pulse, the more energetic the resultant induced field. 

The failure mechanism that makes EMP so devastating, lies with semiconductors and their vulnerability to excessive voltages and reverse polarities of those voltages. Both will create excessive currents which will permanently destroy such devices. With the proliferation of the personal computer and the effort to make them energy efficient, the problem has become greatly exacerbated. Most of today's semiconductors can be destroyed by merely touching them, just the static electricity that normally accumulates on a person's body is enough to do the job.

There are two mechanisms that can destroy any semiconductor:
1) Reverse voltages, e.g., for a device that uses a positive supply, if a negative voltage is applied, the junction is easily ruptured, thus causing instant failure. This mechanism requires significantly less energy to cause damage.
2) Excessive voltages, i.e., voltages that exceed ratings for the devices.

These two mechanisms then cause excessive currents, melting the device junctions. It is fair to say that both mechanisms are at work in an EMP environment.
 



   Collectors of EM Energy from EMP
Power lines
Telephone lines
Pipelines, oil and gas
Rail and subway tracks
Some EMP Effects 
Civilian Infrastructure
Urban services will be severely crippled. 
Health services will fail.
Jails and Prisons will be thrown open.
Military Infrastructure Damage
Command, Control, Communications (C3)
Weapons Systems
Logistics
Supply

Electricity Grid
Power lines will collect EM Energy, wrecking generation, substations, distribution; anything tied to the power grid, including highrise buildings and individual homes, all will suffer catastrophic failures--including the power lines that collected the EM Energy.

Communications 
Telephone and CATV cables will be fused, with repeaters and central offices rendered unusable. Cell phones: towers and handheld units will be damaged beyond repair. 

Information
Computers, main frame and personal, will be damaged beyond repair, and Data loss will be massive and permanent.

Transportation
All transportation will cease, cars, trucks, buses, will stop dead, planes will fall from the sky, subways, trains, will be damaged and cease to run. 

Energy
Oil and gas pipelines will collect massive amounts of EM Energy, causing catastrophic failures in pumping stations and distribution; as well as refineries and storage will be destroyed.

Utilities
Water mains will collect EM Energy, causing water filtration plants to cease to function, triggering a water crises. Sewers and power lines will collect EM Energy, damaging Waste Treatment Plants, stopping their operation. 

Satellites
A less known effect of high altitude bursts, is the artificial "pumping" of the Van Allen belt with large numbers of electrons, which will remain trapped in these belts for periods exceeding one year. All unhardened satellites traversing these belts in low earth orbit could fail in a matter of days to weeks. 


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  EMP Aftermath

Food Distribution, will be local--and finite, will result in mass starvation.
Electricity, and heating fuels, finite to nonexistent.
Clean Water, a thing of the past.
Health Services, will be setback 50 years.
Industry, will be brought to a standstill.
Communications, will be near nonexistent.
Transportation, finite fuel and most vehicles will need repair. 
Monetary System, dollar will quickly become worthless; foreign markets closed to us.
Law Enforcement, will be handicapped, officers will be busy taking care of their families. 
Anarchy: Civil unrest, riots, strikes, lawlessness, corruption, chaos, disorder, petty crime, police corruption, looting, robbery, strong arm robbery, arson, rape, murder, and vigilantism.
 

Casualties, secondary: Starvation will be the real killer. Food relies almost solely on automation, large-scale, industrialized, vertically integrated food production. From the fields to the table, the one common denominator is automation technology. From the microelectronics in the tractor pulling harrows in the field, to the trucks carrying produce to the processors, and the automated inventory tracking in the food store, the vulnerable links in the chain, are the humble silicon based transistors.

Aircraft will fall from the sky. At any given time, there are an estimated 90,000 people in the air over the U.S. It is believed that most of those would become casualties. This does not take into account the collateral casualties on the ground.

There are millions upon millions of people driving automobiles at any given time. EMP will suddenly and totally disable most vehicles, especially modern vehicles that every function is under electronic control. The number of casualties that would occur would be in the millions--a number impossible to comprehend, let alone take care of. 
 

NOTE: Due to the extremely high voltages and currents involved, even if devices are switched off or unplugged, they will still suffer severe damage. 

See Photo
Map of Islands
Kwajalein Link
Kwaj Missles Link
ABM and EMP
Starfish Prime
VIDEO NGC []
Solar EMP
The view From Kwajalein

It was about 21:00 Kwajalein time, and I was just leaving an outdoor movie. All of a sudden there was a flash--like someone had just taken a picture. I looked around, but there were no cameras. Than I heard several people say that the "Johnston Shot" was scheduled for tonight. 

I looked up in the eastern sky-- toward Johnston, Island, about 1500 miles away--and there, high in the sky, was the beginning of a thin Arc of very bright white light. It appeared in the shape of a rainbow, except it didn't span from horizon to horizon. 

The impression was that the light was somehow being shaped by the Earth's curvature, i.e.,  reflecting off the ocean's surface. 

After about ten to fifteen minutes it reached its brightest, and its thinnest crescent. 

During this time I walked to the, nearby, Navy Ham Shack, KX6BU, where a buddy, Bill Campbell, W5UHF, had been running phone patches back to the states. He said that while he was talking to a "regular on twenty" [meters], all of a sudden there was a flash, and the band instantly went DEAD! "No signals and no noise." "It was as if the receiver had been switched OFF!" 

By the time I arrived (~20 to 30 minutes), the "band" was starting to return. Except, instead of rapid fading (QSB), there was rapid "worbling," a definite aural frequency shifting. It was as if someone were wiggling the tuning knob (PTO) of the Collins 32 S-1 SSB receiver. I have never before, nor since, heard such a sound. I concluded that it had to be Doppler shifting of the ~ 14.300 MHz signals, caused by the thermonuclear (1.4 Megaton) Induced Ionospheric Turbulence...
 

I don't remember hearing of anything happening on Kwaj as a result of the shots. Of course, all of the technical facilities there were heavily shielded. Knowing that there were artifacts in Hawaii, I am surprised we didn't experience the same...
Russian EMP
(Operation K)

A Russian high altitude test was conducted on 22 October 1962 (during the Cuban missile crisis), in Operation K, when a 300 kiloton warhead was detonated near Dzhezkazgan at an altitude of 180 miles. Scientists instrumented a 353 mile section of a telephone line in the area to measure the effects of the Electro-Magnetic Pulse.

(MAP)
The EMP fused all of the 353 mile monitored overhead telephone line with measured currents of over 3000 Amperes. The monitored telephone line was divided into sub-lines of 25 to 50 miles in length, separated by repeaters. Each sub-line was protected by fuses and by gas-filled overvoltage protectors. The EMP caused all of the fuses to blow and all of the overvoltage protectors to fire in all of the sub-lines of the 353 mile telephone line. 

The EMP from the same test shut down 620 miles of shallow-buried power cables between Astana and Almaty, and started a fire that burned down the Karaganda power plant.

 


.
EMP waveform summary 
(U.S.Army Corps of Engineers).
Type
Peak Amplitude
Timeframe
  HEMP
50 kV/m
Few nsec to 200 nsec
  Surface-burst
Source region 
1 MV/m 
Few nsec to 1 microsec
 
10 kV/m 
1 microsec to 0.1 sec
  Radiated region
 
1 microsec to 100 microsec
  Air-burst
 Source region 
1 MV/m 
Few nsec to 1 microsec
   Radiated region
300 V/m at 5 km, typical (highly dependent on HOB)
10 nanosec to 5 microsec
  SGEMP
100 kV/m
  Few nanosec to 100 nanosec
  MHn-EMp
30 V/km
  0.1 sec to 100 sec

Purloined from Wikipedia

Called the Compton Effect, instantaneous or prompt gamma rays emitted from the nuclear blast interact with air molecules and atoms producing an ionized region surrounding the burst point, known as the deposition or source region. The negatively charged electrons move outward faster than the heavier positively charged ions and there is initially a separation of charges. This produces an electric field which can attain its maximum value in about 10-8 seconds. There is a net vertical electron current generated within the ionized deposition region. The time-varying current results in the emission of a short pulse of electromagnetic radiation which is strongest in directions perpendicular to the current, this is the EMP. 




 

The National Geographic Channel 
Electronic Armageddon, EMP 45:50 

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 LINKS:
Starfish Prime

ABM and EMP

http://ed-thelen.org/EMP-ElectroMagneticPulse.html

Operation Plumbbob (1957)

Solar EMP

1859 Solar Event
 

VIDEO NGC []

fas.org/.../emp

EMP_Protection

Discussion of EMP by Deputy Director DSWA

NHEMP Implications for homeland security/doc.pdf

Map of Islands

Kwajalein Link

Kwaj Missles Link
 
 


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