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Intelligent Transportation System
( I V H S ) 
                  By Glen A. Williamson              1992


Abstract

As one possible approach to the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS), this paper  describes a reliable and inexpensive method of communications between motor vehicles and a centralized authority, via a distributed network. It discusses how its ease of implementation is the result of a synergy of evolving trends, i.e., the increasing use of the Light Emitting Diode (LED) in the center high mount stop light (CHMSL), and that the same technology is planned for use in existing and new traffic lights. There is discussion of the LED's properties as an efficient, fast acting and highly reliable light source, and because it can be modulated at high data rates (> 5 Mbit/s), and, being monochromatic, yields high S/Noise ratios, is an ideal communication medium. 

The paper suggests, that by taking advantage of in situ hardware and employing standard modulation methods, an hierarchical protocol, encryption and an efficient error correction code (ECC): a highly reliable Command, Control and Communications (C3) system is possible. And it is further pointed out that to capitalize on these coming resources, there should be early standardization of this LED illumination technology; relative to the proper selection of device types, wavelengths, maximum MTBF, beam patterns, modulation methods, protocol, etc. The applications section outlines the myriad possibilities this system offers: from collision avoidance to trip navigation, from elimination of DWI to receiving road condition information. The paper makes the point that its primarily purpose is to introduce this communication methodology, and is not necessarily a blueprint for the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System. However, to better discuss this technology, in the proper context, there is significant discussion to that end. Last, but by no means least, Appendix-F is an attempt to acknowledge the "political land mines" that litter this landscape.

.
  Abstract
  Introduction
  Proposed System Description
  Overview
--Embodiments
  Vehicle Modulated LED Light
  Traffic Light MLEDL
  Remote Interrogation Node
  Portable Interrogation Device
  RADAR (LIDAR) Feature
  Side-Mount Optical Transponders
--Types of Transactions
  Types of Exchanges
  Data exchange
  Information exchange
  Communications
  Relay
  Interrogation
  Vehicle control
--Vehicle Environment
  Driver interface 
  Incorrect Information
  Vehicle Host Computer
  Distributed Processing
  Range Detection
  Communication to the Vehicle
  Communication from the Vehicle
  Data Encryption
  Voice communication
--Fail Safe System
  MLEDL Cannot be Circumvented
--Protocol
  Station Keeping
  Pulse Patterns
  Layers of Signaling
  Data Exchange Strategies
  Modulation
  Error Coding, Detection and Correction
  Encryption
  Range Measurement
--Applications 
  Traffic Light
  Collision Avoidance
  Rear-end collision avoidance
  Tail Gating
  Collisions While in Reverse
  Blind Spot Elimination
  Entering traffic
  Vehicle Lighting
  Road conditions
  Geographical Location
  Trip Navigation
  Emergency Vehicles
  Smarter Railway Crossings
  Stranded Vehicle
  Toll booth
--Law Enforcement
  Remote Interrogation
  Legal Operation of a Motor Vehicle
  Restricted Driver
  Speeding, Detection and Automatic Ticketing
  Pursued Vehicle
  Impaired Driver Detection and Alerting
  Hit and Run Identification
  Stolen vehicle
  Emission Detection
  Highway Traffic Data Archives 11
--Technology
  Modality
  Emitter Technology
  Emitter Technology Trends
  Traffic Light LED Operation
  Traffic Light Emitter Focused on Lanes
  CHMSL Coverage
  Power Boost using Pulsed Emitters
  Emitter Goodness: Power Measurement
  Front-end Emitter
  IR LEDs
--Receiver Technology
  Receiver Design
  Photo Detectors
  Reception Enhancements
  Throughput Enhancement
  Fast Channel
  Wavelength Shift Keying
--Potential Benefits
--Summary 
--Conclusion
--Future
--Appendix  A
  Obstructions to a Successful System
--Appendix  B
  A Review of Transmission Methods
--Appendix  C
  Vehicle Data Storage 
--Appendix  D
  Glossary
--Appendix  E
  Ethics Related to Design Philosophy 
--Appendix  F
  Political Dimensions of IVHS 

--List of Illustrations

.

Introduction
The motor vehicle environment has gone virtually untouched by the technology explosion of the past decade - especially the computer revolution. Except for the use of microprocessors as an adjunct to pollution control and engine management; technology has, for the most part, not effected the roadway environment - automated traffic lights not withstanding. 

The long dreamed of, "Smart Highway," has not only been technically feasible for sometime, but its time may be now. To enlist the vehicle's existing computer for the added tasks involved in vehicle/highway interface management, will put great computing power at the disposal of the entire IVHS structure. There are two approaches: one would have smart vehicles operating autonomously, with minimal centralized control or supervision; the other approach would be an integrated tightly-coupled vehicle/highway interface. This latter approach is composed of three elements: the "smart" vehicle, the centralized authority or "network" and the communication between them. The resulting homogeneity would strengthen any and all functions taken on by such a system: it would be an entity that is greater than the sum of its parts. Surplus computing power would always be available, improving data access and distribution; and speed in evaluation and decision making (e.g., expert systems). 

 The various communications methods that might be brought to bear on such a system all have their individual strengths and weaknesses: there seems to be no single technology that has it all. (See Appendix B, for a review) However, among the contenders, the light-wave, or optical approach appears to have the greatest advantages. 

By the time the intelligent vehicle highway system, IVHS, starts to show up in those urban areas where it is most needed, the motoring public - both commercial and private - will not only except it, they will, most likely, welcome it with open arms. However, in the less congested areas of the country it may be a harder sell. Costs, inconvenience, safety issues, reduced autonomy, invasion of privacy, etc., will be some of the criticisms leveled at such a system. 



__________________ Proposed System Description   ____________________

Overview
We propose a two-way communication system between motor vehicles and a centralized command and control authority, that would utilize visible light waves as the communication medium. With the installation of Light Emitting Diodes (LED) arrays in the center high mount stop lights (CHMSL) of new automobiles, and the decision to install, this more reliable technology in new traffic lights--as well as, retrofitting existing traffic lights comes an opportunity. By setting a standard of performance which includes technology that would allow this installed base of optical emitters to be utilized for data exchange--in addition to its intended function: the realization of a nationwide highway command and control system (Intelligent Vehicle Highway System, IVHS) would be facilitated. This would allow bi-directional (full duplex) communication between various vehicles and a centralized network. The information that is exchanged can be any information that improves the safety, efficiency and convenience of the nation's roadway system. 

________________    Embodiments 

Vehicle Modulated LED Light
The vehicle would utilize the existing light emitting diodes, LEDs, center high mount stop light (CHMSL)  as the primary emitter or transmitter. For the receiving end, the vehicle is equipped with two--lens coupled selective photo detector arrays, one looking forward (driver's view) and the other looking rearward.

Traffic Light MLEDL
Like the vehicles, traffic lights also use a LED light source, which would be similarly  modulated and equipped with  zoned photo detectors. 

Remote Interrogation Node
In remote or country areas, inexpensive solar powered nodes could be installed to help complete the system. These could communicate to the network center via radio, land-line, satellite, daisy chained (using their own light beams), or any combination there of.

Portable Interrogation Device
Law enforcement is able to remotely interrogate any vehicle in view, by the use of a vehicle mounted or hand held interrogating device. The officer will be able to read and write selected, vehicle information. 

RADAR (LIDAR) Feature 
In addition to the CHMSL's (LED) emitter, the vehicle will also have a front-mounted LED emitter (either red diode LASER or orange LED running or parking light ). This in combination with the forward-looking photo detector array (one front, one rear), the vehicle will be able to detect objects in its path as it detects its own signal being reflected from the object. This safety feature can be enhanced by installing efficient retroflectors (or even reflective tape) on any object that a vehicle may encounter, such as the sides of tractor-trailer trailers, house trailers, farm equipment, etc.

Side-Mount Optical Transponders
There are two, inexpensive, side-mount optical transponders  on each side of the vehicle, and are made up of both, passive retroflectors and active devices (an emitter in one and a photo detector in the other). Their purpose is to act as  efficient reflectors for an oncoming vehicle's LIDAR, in the case of a non operating vehicle (parked); while the active elements would be added insurance during operation. 

 ________________    Types  of  Transactions 

 Types of Exchanges
There are basically six types of exchanges that will occur: data exchange, information exchange, communications, relay, interrogation and vehicle control. 

Data exchange is the most common interaction. This is basically where the vehicle, at the network's request, uploads its volatile and nonvolatile memory to the network. The data items being specified by the network can be anything from the hardwired VIN # to the date and nature of the last brake job. (See Appendix C) 

Information exchange is a sort of news and weather station. Road conditions, alternate routes, etc. for the surrounding local, as well as, more global information, are broadcast to the appropriate vehicles. 

Communications such as a stranded vehicle report or a vehicle reporting the knowledge of an emergency: its location and the nature, etc. This can take the form of keyed-in data, a short voice message or both.

Relay of information is where a vehicle is stranded and is out of contact with the network. If the driver sets the emergency switch to the "Help" mode (vehicle or health emergency), passing vehicles' systems will be contacted and the distress message will be uploaded to those vehicles for relay to the network, i.e., passing vehicles will be unwitting messengers.

Interrogation Is usually initiated by law enforcement, looking for wants and warrants, etc. It can occur at any node as a matter of normal operation or it  can be initiated from a police vehicle or a hand held unit.

Vehicle control is where, for good and sufficient cause, a law enforcement officer would physically stop a vehicle by remote control by revoking its "permission to go." This control authority is only allowed to law enforcement, and then only in a situation where there is probable cause. This, also, is an example of the absolute need for data encryption. (See Appendix E)

________________    Vehicle Environment 

Driver Interface
The driver interfaces with the MLEDL system via a multi-modal interface which has for its primary design criteria, to minimize driver distraction and to not cause unwanted shifts in driver attention: in other words, the driver's aggregate performance is unchanged, with or without such a system interface. The interface's output to the driver falls into two categories: the first is related to getting the driver's attention, and the second is informational. The alerting can be from simple sounders (buzzer, bell, etc.) to voice messages, at selected levels of loudness and intonation, or prerecorded family member's voices to indicate the level of urgency, to direct the driver's attention to the situation with a minimum of delay and confusion. 

A graphical user interface, GUI, can be used in concert with the these modes to convey a concise visual message and, if needed, a more verbose message. This graphical presentation device can take several forms: the Heads Up Display or HUD, for the "quick-look" alerting type of information, as well as, driving instrumentation; and a second display type that is more of an instrument panel display (in the dashboard) that would be for perusal or browsing type of information, and for data entry or menu response input (touch screen).
 

A subset of the informational output is information that is not directly related to health and safety, a sort of FYI--like road conditions, weather, etc. This informational part of the interface can be customized to suit the user's needs or desires by prioritizing or selectively masking the various system attributes, as long as its alteration or masking has no effect on safety. 

Incorrect Information
In the design of this or any informational system, great care must be taken that incorrect information is never passed to the driver. The primary reason, of course, is a matter of health and safety, but it also relates to the driving public's confidence in the usefulness of this, highly automated, system, especially among older drivers. A possible scenario: when the system (network and vehicle) detects an error, the system goes into the "Fess-Up" mode, and informs the driver that it--the network is confused or may have made an error and should be viewed skeptically until told otherwise. The network, in deciding whether--in fact, there has been an error, must error on the side of safety in that judgment call. 

Vehicle Host Computer 
The Vehicle's Host Computer (the engine control processor which controls all of the vehicle's functions, including the engine control, heating/cooling system, entertainment system, etc.) will have as one of its many tasks, the operation of the IVHS system. This computer, with its multi-tasking operating system, is of sufficient computing power to handle all vehicle related tasks and the IVHS operation, without suffering overload. One of the processor's most important jobs will be to make various, traffic related, "decisions" based on all available information from both the vehicle and the network as quickly and accurately as possible. It will use the most reliable and proven algorithms available: the power and speed of Fuzzy Logic and the learning faculty of Neural Networks. The trend (1994--95 time frame) toward powerful, reasonably priced, 32 bit RISC processors (20 MIPS) or DSPs, will yield a cost effective solution to the added computing power required by the IVHS system.

Because the vehicle's main computer controls the IVHS: if someone attempted to disable the IVHS they would disable the entire vehicle. This would happen as a result of  the vehicle's computer recognizing tampering (improper access code) or ineptitude on the tamperer's part. 

Distributed Processing
It is important that the computing power of the individual vehicles be utilized (pre-processing) to minimize the processing required of the network. By distributing the IVHS processing needs among the individual network node computers, as well as, efficiently using the vehicles' processors, an extremely reliable and very powerful computing entity can be established. This has the advantage of sharing processing power with any overworked nodes, and in the event  a node fails, of  taking over its tasks until it is brought back on-line. 

Range Detection 
Range detection by the following vehicle, of the followed vehicle, is possible by using a combination of accurately timed and phase-compared, round trip data bursts measurements. A significant benefit of this feature is that it will better alert both drivers of the relative closing speed and to warn of a possible rear-end collision. This measurement technique can also be initiated by the network nodes.

Communication to the Vehicle
Once the interrogating node establishes contact with the vehicle, it tells the vehicle to send back certain data items. This is done in one of two ways: a command list of certain data items and the order in which they are to be sent back is sent to the vehicle; or one of a set of preset lists (short lists, long lists, etc.), residing in the vehicle's computer, is selected; thus reducing transaction time.
 

Communication from the Vehicle
Due to the many variables such as "look time," the number of vehicles to be handled at any given node, system bandwidth, etc., not all vehicles can complete a transaction and must try again at the next node. For this reason the vehicle is placed into the "unfinished business" mode, so at the next exchange the node will ask for only that data it missed. This is repeated until the transaction is completed.

Data Encryption
Encryption of the data--in both directions--is of paramount importance. Not only to prevent the circumvention of the system and to preserve privacy, but also to prevent unauthorized control of, or damage to, the system. This is a Hot item: a large amount of the criticism of IVHS, will be based on privacy and autonomy questions. If the motoring public is convinced, justifiably  so, that the safeguards are real and inviolate, they may be more favorably inclined toward the concept of the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System.

Voice communication
One-way voice message (voice mail) communications to the network can be used for reporting accidents, mishaps like a stalled or disabled vehicle, etc.- as the vehicle is en route. No facility for vehicle to vehicle voice communications is provided. (See Appendix E)

________________    Fail Safe System

MEDL Cannot be Circumvented 
A person cannot disable the MLEDL system without causing the vehicle to eventually go into "maintenance mode." (See Foot Note 1 ) The reason for this is, if the driver has a valid driver's license and there are no wants or warrants outstanding, he/she is given permission-to-go (PTG) by the network, for some interval of time (minutes to hours). This permission is being reevaluated and renewed during each network exchange. The network can not tell the vehicle to stop, but it can revoke or withhold permission to go, this "fail-safe " logic of giving permission-to-go, instead of telling the vehicle to stop (i.e., defaulting to no-go), has the effect on unauthorized vehicle use, of eventually running out of permission and shutting down the vehicle. 

Even if  the communication optics were purposely blocked (blindfolded), the system would--after its permission-to-go expired--go into maintenance mode and stop. 

When the vehicle is headed out of an area of frequent network nodes, into the country, for example: as it is leaving (or entering) its permission-to-go interval is altered appropriately. Also, Permission-to-go intervals can be shortened in certain geographical zones, like high crime areas, or anywhere a vehicle chase is likely to occur.

To start the vehicle, the driver must insert his/her valid driver's license "card" into the vehicle's special card reader (part of the dash board). Upon first starting out, the vehicle will have a grace period lasting until its first exchange, e.g., first thing in the morning driving to work, etc. 

In the event a driver is "dead-in-the-water," and has run out of permission-to-go time, they will have the option of invoking time from the "emergency fund." This means that if they have less than some number of traffic points, and are not tagged, they may drive, on grace, until they have their first exchange with the network. At this time, in order to retrieve their driver's license, they must present themselves to a police traffic facility and be validated as to having had a legitimate need: at which time they will loose their "tag" and be able to recover their driver's license. 
 

As a further deterrent to circumvention of the system, at selected locations (toll plazas or traffic choke-points), a separate method for detection and counting of vehicles will be used to authenticate the network's count. Vehicles found to be purposely "fixed" to avoid the system and where intent is proven, the vehicle would be confiscated. 

_______________    Protocol

Station Keeping
The vehicle's system will periodically (.5 Hz) emit very short "station keeping" burst patterns, regardless of whether the brakes are being applied or not. When the brakes are applied, the LEDs will send the data at the appropriate duty cycle: between data bursts the LED emitter functions as a brake light, i.e., it is at DC potential (no carrier). 

Pulse Patterns
The system will use various LED pulse rates and sequences (patterns) to quickly identify the signaling mode the vehicle is in. This allows for a very quick and simple identification of which vehicles need attention and the importance of that exchange, without having to interrogate each individual vehicle. 

Layers of Signaling
There will be several layers of signaling where the sending of a specific pulse pattern (repetition rate, pulse duty cycle, pattern duty cycle) identifies the vehicle's signaling mode without a formal data exchange, i.e., the pattern alone has sufficient information.

The first layer sends a pattern with a small amount of imbedded data indicating only its speed. This is the signaling mode the vehicle goes into just after a complete exchange, indicating "I've been interrogated recently, and I don't need an exchange."

 The second layer of signaling has more imbedded data in it, like the VIN #, speed, tag status, etc., but  does not require a two-way exchange or reply. The data may be read by the network or not. To help  speed along the exchanges: the VINE is sent in two parts, only the last n digits are broadcast, if a match occurs, then the network asks for the remainder of the number, to delineate out the the full or real VIN #.

The third layer requires an exchange of data at some priority level, n. 

The forth layer, a subset of the third layer, is the "unfinished business" mode, which can have any priority, depending on the importance of the uncollected data.

The fifth layer has the highest priority: emergency (of which there are also several levels).

Again, these five patterns are unique and do not require data exchange to be identified as to their purpose.

These layers operate thusly: When a vehicle has gone long enough to need a normal data exchange (who are you? are you tagged? etc. and here is your location, etc.) its pattern will identify it as such. After a complete exchange, it will go to a pattern that identifies that fact, and it will not unnecessarily tie up the next node (in the case of traffic overload, vehicles will be prioritized). If an incomplete exchange occurred, then the vehicle would shift to the appropriate (unfinished business) pattern until it had completed its transaction, in subsequent exchanges.

Data Exchange Strategies
A data exchange protocol for dealing with both large numbers of vehicles at a congested intersection or individual vehicles, requires an adaptive nature. The avoidance of exchanging unnecessary data is the key. If the system were screening all vehicles in a given area or roadway, it might screen only some percentage that passed intersection "A," for example. These vehicles would be "marked" as having been screened and would be skipped at the succeeding intersections. And, at intersection "B" some percentage of the missed vehicles would be interrogated, and so on until all vehicles have had an exchange.

Modulation
One modulation method that would be used is a multi-level encoding scheme: Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM), with m phase levels and n amplitude levels. Also, an improved version that is more robust, called Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM). Like modems, this system will have an ensemble of modulation methods, adaptable to the environment as needed. Also, the programmable modulation hardware is flexible enough to mimic any new modulation method. 

Error Coding, Detection and Correction
Reliable or errorless data exchange is imperative. The rigor exercised toward error detection and correction will have several levels. The greatest rigor will be applied to the most important exchanges, grading downward toward the least important. Importance being, of course, based on driver health and safety, first and foremost. To ease any transmission error problems, Packet Protocol will be used, such that upon successful reception of a packet or packet groups, their unique IDs will be transmitted back to the sending station to enable proper accounting, and to allow a resend of lost or unrecoverable packets.

Encryption
The data network is protected by an encryption scheme based on either the NBS DES scheme or the public key approach, which would change keys randomly and often, effectively eliminating unauthorized access to the network. 

Range Measurement 
Range measurement is possible between two (or more) vehicles in close proximity, by exchanging accurately timed, pseudo random data sequences. On a finite bandwidth system, better than expected resolution is possible if time-in-transit measurements are supplemented by carrier phase-angle measurements, with statistical averaging. However, the resolution needed in most motor vehicle scenarios can be thought of in terms of car-lengths (or fractions there of), not feet and inches. 
 
 

________________________  Applications  ___________________________ 

Traffic Light
Traffic Light: Stop, Caution and Go messages are sent to the appropriate vehicles near (selective zones) the traffic light. When the driver starts braking (with adequate deceleration), the vehicle communicates "I'm stopping." Or a driver may not see the signal, thus his vehicle communicates that it is moving at n MPH. In such a case, that vehicle would be signaled in a way that would get the driver's attention, if all else fails it might automatically take control and stop the vehicle. (See Appendix E)
 

Collision Avoidance 
The addition of a specially collimated (slight beam spread) low power (visible, ~650 nm) diode LASER could be installed on the front of a vehicle, so as to be seen by approaching vehicles, would provide a way to alert both drivers to a possible head-on collision. 

Also to help prevent head-on collisions with DWI drivers: any vehicle that has decided its driver is DWI, broadcasts that fact to nodes and to any oncoming vehicle.

Rear-end Collision Avoidance:
Rear-end collision detection and avoidance would be feasible if the lead or target vehicle were putting on brakes and communications between vehicles were established quickly enough. However if the lead vehicle were stopped and not showing a brake light, there would be no warning. This could be solved by requiring all vehicles to periodically pulse (data burst) the brake light when stopped with no brake light showing. This is, in fact, the strategy used and is referred to as station-keeping.

Tail Gating
A  precursor to rear-end collisions is tail gating. There are two types of tailgating, one is in anticipation of passing and the driver is usually attentive, and therefore less likely to rear-end the followed vehicle. The second, and most dangerous, is the inattentive person, who may or may not be in a hurry.

In an attempt to prevent a collision, the system (vehicle to vehicle) will recognize dangerous following distances and warn both drivers: the following driver in order for them to back off; the followed driver in order that they can be on guard or take evasive action if necessary.

Collisions While in Reverse 
Vehicles backing out, in a parking lot, or anywhere else, run a common risk of backing into another vehicle, either as they are also backing or just passing behind another backing vehicle . The vehicle to vehicle system would help to prevent this common, but less catastrophic, type of collision. 

Blind Spot Elimination
A problem that has plagued drivers over the years is the "blind spot." The classic situation of the semi truck driver not seeing the small, low-to-the-ground sports car; or the everyday situation of a vehicle being just at that spot, between your rear-view and side mirrors, where you can't see him in either. This would be prevented in all cases,  both vehicles, as a matter of course, would communicate long before that spot is reached and both drivers (and their vehicles) would be aware of the other.

Entering traffic
When pulling onto a busy street or merging, knowing the speed of the oncoming vehicles would allow an intelligent vehicle to suggest the optimum time to pull into traffic. Likewise, the oncoming traffic would be made aware of the vehicle preparing to enter traffic. In some instances, the driver could be prevented from doing something that is a certainty to be dangerous or cause harm to themselves or others.  (See Appendix E)

Vehicle Lighting
If a vehicle's headlights are not on at the appropriate time (time of day, bad weather, etc.), the driver is alerted by either the vehicle or the network, or the system may turn them on automatically. 

Drivers of on-coming vehicles, as well as following vehicles-- will have their high-beams dimmed by the aggrieved vehicle sending a "request-to-dim" message. However, the offending driver will be able to "force" the issue of his headlight status by overriding the request (this presupposes, for purposes of safety, only).

Road conditions
Road conditions are broadcast: if there is a traffic jam, construction, detour, bad weather, etc.; it would also suggest alternate routes where possible.

Geographical Location
A running geographical location or "fix" is available to the Vehicle from every node it passes. Whenever the vehicle communicates, its location can be part of the returned message. In the case of the stranded vehicle, the stranded vehicle's last known location is in its "help" message along with location information of the relaying vehicle.

Trip Navigation
Navigation for preprogrammed short or long trips is feasible using a combination of, network supplied, location information and highway map data from either the network or that stored on CD ROM (option) in the vehicle.

Emergency Vehicles
The approach of emergency vehicles from the front or rear would be automatically indicated to the driver. This transaction can occur by either the network's action or directly from the approaching emergency vehicle's high-powered LASER emitter.

Smarter Railway Crossings
The most dangerous aspect of guarded railway crossings is the driver's lack of certainty as to the signal's reliability: "Is there really a train coming, and can I beat it?" Unguarded crossings are numerous and are a very real hazard.

The MLEDL system can address the problems of both guarded and unguarded crossings. In the case of the guarded crossing, the driver would be given absolute information about the train's distance, speed and time of arrival at that crossing, with recommendations as to what course of action the driver should or should not take. As an aside: human nature being what it is, people resist those instructions that are without explanation. By giving all the information a person feels they need for them to make the decision, along with a suggested course of action, they are more apt to make the right decision, on average. However, as a last resort the driver could be prevented from doing something that is a certainty to be dangerous or harmful to themselves or others. (See Appendix E)

The unguarded crossing will become a thing of the past: There is no technical reason why all trains could not be tied in to the MLEDL network with vehicle transponders addressing composite nodes (nodes that work with both motor vehicles and rail-borne vehicles). All previously unguarded crossings would be equipped with inexpensive remote solar powered network nodes or repeaters. The low cost remote nodes do not necessarily have to tied into the network to fulfill their intended purpose. 

Stranded Vehicle 
Any vehicle can pick up and relay any distress message from any vehicle stranded along side the roadway. The message can be something as simple as a pressed emergency button, indicating either vehicle or health trouble; or it can be a digitized voice message limited to some short (15 sec) message, or both. 
 

Once the message has been passed successfully to the network, the carrying vehicle's memory is cleared of that message by the network. A return message: "Message received," is relayed, via selected vehicles (ones that would most likely pass the stranded vehicle), to the distressed vehicle which terminates the sending of its distress message, and--at the same time--turns out the red, "Help Called" message on the console and turns on the green, "Help on The Way" message. 

Toll booth
Automatic Toll booth ticketing and accounting, as well as screening of vehicles, looking for stolen or wanted vehicles.

______________  Law Enforcement 

Remote Interrogation
Besides the communication between fixed nodes of the network and traveling vehicles, law enforcement is able to remotely interrogate any vehicle in view, by the use of a vehicle mounted or hand held interrogating device. The officer will be able to read any pertinent information from a vehicle, as well as write information to a vehicle, to alert other authorities, e.g., in the case of a pursuit. 

Legal Operation of a Motor Vehicle 
The automated nature of the MLEDL system lends itself to an improved method of restricting who legally operates a vehicle. The vehicle will be equipped with a special card reader designed to read the driver's specially encoded (magnetically and holographically) driver's license. To start the vehicle, the driver must insert his/her valid driver's license "card" into the reader (part of the dash board), the reader will capture the card much as an automatic teller machine, ATM, does. At the end of the trip, the card is returned to the driver if he/she has no violations outstanding and if, in fact, the card is deemed legitimate. If the card is not returned, for whatever reason, the driver has the option of driving directly to the police station and taking care of the violation and getting his license back or he/she can opt to delay taking care of the violation and can retrieve their license which has been temporarily rendered unusable (magnetic strip erased). Upon clearing up the violation, their card will be reinstated by the police agency. A vehicle owner can create a list of only those people that are authorized to drive their vehicle: therefore the vehicle will not go for non-listed drivers. In the case of the parking lot attendant, the owner would give "restricted permission-to-go," sufficient to park and retrieve the vehicle (with limited time and performance).

Restricted Driver
A driver with restricted driving privileges or someone on work-release, can have their driving tightly monitored and controlled by the system. 

Speeding, Detection and Automatic Ticketing
When a vehicle enters a speed zone, the speed limit is communicated to the vehicle's driver and after some time interval (~20 seconds) its speed is read: if the vehicle's speed is above the speed limit plus some grace, the vehicle is "tagged" and it broadcasts to all nodes (and law enforcement vehicles) the fact that the vehicle is in violation. Area surveillance TV cameras can record the offense for evidence. 

Pursued Vehicle
A pursued vehicle can be stopped or put into "maintenance mode," remotely, by the pursuing  police officer revoking the vehicle's permission-to-go .

Impaired Driver Detection and Alerting
There are two scenarios relative to DWI detection: either the vehicle's computer deduces the quality of the driver's performance, measured against an historical, or past performance template, as well as, a standardized performance template; thus quantifying an index of impairment (0 = no impairment, 9 = severely impaired). Alternatively, the driver is evaluated as he/she passes a roadside, remote DWI monitoring station. 

If impairment is suspected (or deduced) the network is alerted and the vehicle in question is "tagged" (its memory is written to) as being "suspected" of being impaired, with some quantified value or level of suspected impairment. Above some level: probable cause is considered to have been established and a police officer can be dispatched. As the tagging occurs, the vehicle will broadcast its tagged status, ID and location to the nodes it passes. The driver would be unaware of this until he is notified to stop driving by the system or a police officer. If the driver does not stop voluntarily, the vehicle can be put into maintenance mode. In situations where impairment is above a level considered hazardous, the vehicle could automatically go into maintenance mode.

Also to help prevent head-on collisions with DWI drivers: any vehicle whose driver has been tagged as a DWI suspect, broadcasts that fact to all nodes and to any oncoming vehicle, as well as automatic headlight flashing, to alert pedestrians.

Hit and Run Identification
When a hit and run occurs, both vehicles will record that fact, and each vehicle will know the ID of the other vehicle (in the exchange prior to impact). Further, this information will be conveyed to the next node either vehicle encounters.

Stolen vehicle 
When a stolen vehicle is identified, that vehicle is "tagged" and is made to broadcasts its ID, location and the fact that it is stolen and wanted, and it would go into maintenance mode. Further, special hi-res surveillance TV cameras, in the area, are activated to record (for identification and evidence) the driver of the vehicle. 

Emission Detection
Like the impaired driver detection, roadside remote emission monitors could, similarly, communicate to the vehicle, its emission values, and if, in fact, there was a violation. Also, the vehicle's own engine emission control and monitoring capability is utilized to report first hand, on the vehicle's emission quality. In this event, the driver would be notified by the vehicle interface, and a notice of violation would be mailed to them. This data would remain in the record and the vehicle's memory (and continue to broadcast the tag) until the emission violation was remedied. 

Highway Traffic Data Archives
All traffic data is collected and reduced down, or simplified, to individual vehicles and their paths, with relevant data (time, date, etc.); and this information is stored, and can be used (either near real-time or in retrospect) for determining who was at a specific location in some time frame, e.g., when a crime was committed. 

____________________________  Technology  ______________________________

Modality
The MLEDL system will be capable of several different optical modulation methods, such as PSK, FSK, QAM, TCM, etc., at various data rates and selected carrier frequencies. FSK has the characteristic of rejecting congestion in a multi-signal environment (capture effect in FM systems). In a multiple signal environment, if the stronger signal is only 1 dB higher it is excepted with the other signals being rejected.  This rejection occurs in the limiter/IF/Detector cascade, not in the front-end (photo detector). 

By using channelization,  a significant improvement  in overcoming interference from unwanted emitters can be achieved. As in any data exchange organization, there will be a hierarchical structure made up of a master/slave relationship: the vehicle being the slave with the exception of law enforcement.
 

______________   Emitter Technology

Emitter Technology Trends
Red LED technology is headed toward greater efficiencies, lower costs (greater yield), and a trend toward orange colors (complements human visual acuity), as well as, and green. Speed or bandwidth, is also improving: 60 nsec turn-on and 40 nsec turn-off times are now being delivered in LED CHMSL lights.

Traffic Light LED Operation 
The traffic light LED colors are presently: Red @ 660 nm, Yellow @ ~ 575 nm, Green @ 555 nm (BW ~ 100 nm). The traffic light will either be red or green, for equal periods (on average, yellow being only momentary). Therefore, it is necessary that the vehicle's photo detectors be sensitive to all three colors. Depending on the expense in both dollars and photons: either a wide, bandpass filter of 100 nm bandwidth be used or if possible; two (or more) narrow band, bandpass filters could be used (separate detector arrays could be used for wavelength division multiplexing). 

Because of the amount of data that may need to be exchanged at some intersections, all three lights (R, Y, G) might be utilized for data on a continuous basis, i.e., when a lamp is "off" it is modulated at a low enough duty-cycle that it is perceived as being off.

Traffic Light Emitter Focused on Lanes
The best signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ratio), for both sensor and emitter, can be achieved by focusing the LEDs toward specific areas of the traffic lanes, i.e., avoiding wasted light. By focusing or controlling the beam spread and optimizing the directivity, the most efficient use of the finite emitter power is achieved, without creating blind spots.

CHMSL Coverage
LED CHMSLs have the advantage of covering a large area at moderate intensity : as opposed to a diode LASER,  which covers very very small area with very high power. To substitute LASERs for the LEDs would be prohibitively expensive (at this point in time).

Power Boost using Pulsed Emitters 
The LED has the ability to emit relatively large peak power, as compared to CW or average power, if pulsed for short durations at great duty-cycles. A peak power increase of greater than 10 is possible without significant degradation to the life-span of the emitter (LED or diode LASER). 

Emitter Goodness: Incident and Reflected Power Measurement
The vehicle emitter will be equipped with incident and reflected output power measuring photo detectors. This arrangement will guard against failure of the emitter to emit at specified intensities as well as catastrophic failure. A by-product of this feature is the detection of any obscuration of the emitter, by something like mud, heavy fog, blowing snow, heavy rain, vandalism or some object (the ratio of reflected to incident light would change). In such an eventuality, the vehicle will default to a "everybody-for-themselves" mode, and will act on its own until it finds the network.

Front-end Emitter 
Either a stand-alone diode LASER emitter, or installing an orange LED array in one or both front parking lights. 

IR LEDs
A possible approach to increased bandwidth and wavelength diversity, is to add infrared emitters to the traffic light triad. In addition, by using IR LEDs at some optimum wavelength (water window), improved communications might be possible for certain forms of bad weather.
 
 

_______________    Receiver Technology

Receiver Design
The receiver end, consists of an automatic Zoom lens; faced with protective glass bandpass filters of the correct center frequency, bandwidth and polarization (if any); with auto focus; auto aperture; followed by a highly sensitive and robust photo detector array. The detector consist of an n x m array of, individually addressable, photo detectors, the signals of which are amplified and furnished to a bank of one or more selective limiter IF stages with demodulator. This resulting demodulated TTL signal is then applied to a protocol decoder (which syncs up, extracts the clock and data, and detects the correct preamble and ID, yielding parallel data for the microcontroller, etc. The efficiency of the detectors to extract the correct signals from all the clutter and background interference will depend heavily on the nature of the interference. Since the system will be monochromatic (~ 650 nm) an effort in reducing the man made interference will payoff to a significant degree. For example, it may be feasible to install band-reject or notch filters on or in OEM headlights or, for that matter, any interfering light source. 

Photo Detectors
Multiple photo detectors are mounted overhead at different distances from the traffic light node. This arrangement has the effect of segmenting the zones of reception, thus limiting the amount of data any one detector receives.

Reception Enhancements
Selective Viewpoints, fixed selective optical masking, adaptive optical masking (LCD), barn doors, etc. 
Wavelength Division Multiplexing  (channelization).
Optical Bandpass Filters ahead of photo detectors
Optical Bandreject Filters on ambient lighting (headlights, street lighting, etc.).
Histogram analysis and margin adaptation to multilevel demodulation. 

Throughput Enhancement 
One strategy for increasing the data throughput an any traffic light node, is to have exchanges between vehicles approaching the node, as well as those leaving (exchange after passing).

Fast Channel
The data rates of this system will be limited by the bandwidth of the LED emitters only, the optical receivers, on the other hand, are able to receive much faster emitters (several orders of magnitude faster). It would be desirable to establish a very high-speed channel--Fast Channel--that could receive data from high-speed emitters. An example of a faster emitter is the diode LASER, which could be installed to alleviate congested intersections, where limited data rates could cause an overload of the system and compromise safety. This "Fast Channel" would also accommodate the inevitable faster emitters of the future.

Wavelength Shift Keying
Wavelength Shift Keying (WSK), or dispersion shift keying (DSK) is where the emitter is capable of two disparate wavelengths, e.g., two different wavelengths of LEDs interleaved in one array, one WL for Mark, the other WL for Space. 

The receiver would consist of two detector arrays, each with its own very selective optical bandpass filter, viewing the same image by virtue of a beamsplitter,  through the taking lens. 

A variation on this is to use both Wavelengths as two separate channels, for greater data rates, i.e., faster transactions. 


Potential Benefits, a Partial List: 

Such a system implemented in an ideal world would yield the following: 
(1) DWI deterrent: The certainty that anyone Driving While Impaired will be detected, apprehended and ultimately convicted, should stop all but the most habitual violators. 

(2) It could make car theft impossible to all but the most sophisticated thief (hauling away or cannibalization).

The effect on speeding would be profound: the certain knowledge of detection and apprehension--by "remote control"--should stop all but the most foolish.

Similarly, it will eliminate the need for high speed chases.

Remote vehicle interrogation by law enforcement.

Better head-on collision warning and avoidance.

Greatly reduced rear-end collisions. 

Hit and run identification.

Improved traffic light visibility (alerting).

Reduced hazard when pulling into traffic or merging.

Improved safety at Railway crossings (guarded and unguarded).

Prevents the unauthorized operation of a motor vehicle, e.g., driver with a revoked driver's license.

Better control of drivers with restricted driving privileges.

Emission reduction.

Improved response to approaching emergency vehicles. 

Breakdowns and emergencies would be easily and swiftly reported.

Emergency voice communications. 

Almost instantaneous Vehicle Location.

Improved short and long trip navigation.

Continuous information on weather and road conditions, with suggested alternate routes. 

Insuring appropriate vehicle lighting in darkness and bad weather. 

Toll booth automation and billing. 

Archived  traffic data can be used in criminal investigations, and used as evidence in a trial.

RADAR (LIDAR), will detect passive objects in the vehicles path: thus preventing collisions.

_________________________  Summary  ____________________________

This paper discusses a reliable and inexpensive method of communications relating to the Command, Control and Communication, of the motor vehicle/ highway environment or some form of the IVHS. The communication between motor vehicles and a centralized authority, via a distributed network, is implemented as a result of the synergy of evolving technologies. One of the several elements integral to the approach outlined, is the effort to maximize the cost-benefits of utilizing (soon-to-be) existing infrastructure. This infrastructure consists of both the hundreds of thousands of LED traffic lights (soon to be installed) and the, over 150 million vehicle, in situ computers and LED CHMSL lights. The LED is an efficient and reliable communications device, both visually and eletro-optically, that fits the needs for this type of localized, free-space two-way communications milieu. To capitalize on these coming resources, there should be early standardization of this application-specific technology. 

This approach, while not perfect, have benefits and a synergism not offered by other approaches.
 

______________    Conclusion

Primarily, this paper's original purpose was to introduce this communication methodology, and was not intended as a blueprint for the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System. However, to better discuss this technology, in the proper context, it was necessary to develop certain themes and ideas: so there is significant discussion to that end. As some of these themes developed, it became clear that instead of a lot of disparate technologies being force-fit: in fact, a unified very tightly coupled interface is possible.

In the last decade or so, technology has brought great power to everyday life: the effect of which is vastly more than the sum of its parts. When one begins to think of the seemingly insoluble problems on the nations roadways--that have grown ever larger during that same time span--have, for the most part, been past by, by technology. 

With the prudent application of technology to the full implementation of a viable IVHS, it is conceivable that the lives lost yearly on the nations streets and highways could be reduced by an order of magnitude or greater. Death and life altering injuries on the highway, may one day, be an anachronism.
 

_______________    The Future

The future holds the promise of vastly more efficient computers, for motor vehicles: 32 bit and 64 bit RISC processors are just the beginning. Superconductivity and efficient electric power sources and/or storage devices will transform the motor vehicle into a totally different transportation entity, with its own new sets of problems to be solved. But this transformation will be evolutionary, and effected greatly by the form IVHS takes on today.

If haste (and other human frailties) rules over good judgment, and we install the wrong thing at the wrong time, it could take more than a generation to recover from such a mistake, not counting the lives lost, in the mean time. 

With the proper architecture, the IVHS will be forward compatible well into the twenty first century. 

__________________________  Appendix  A    ____________________________

_______________    Obstructions to a Successful System, And their Possible Remedies. 

Fog
In those areas that are prone to fog, special higher powered diode LASERs could supplement existing emitters, as well as more closely spaced nodes. When fog is too heavy the network causes entering vehicles to default to the "Everybody-for-themselves mode." In the event the network cannot communicate with some vehicles, the vehicle emitter is equipped with a reflected light measuring detector that will alert the vehicle of an obscuration, and the vehicle will default to being on its own, while still looking for a network node. (See Technology chapter,  Emitter section)

Rain 
Rain and fog interference might be minimized in selection of the optical wavelengths chosen for the emitters. Rain while causing optical distortion and transmission efficiency, it will not completely block light transmission in the near field of view.

Snow
Snow can come in several forms: drifting, where the snow piles up obscuring the emitter or detector, or both; and blowing snow, which has an effect somewhat similar to rain and fog, and is similarly amenable to brute force.

Sensor Blinding by Sun angle and glare 
To help alleviate the sensor blinding problem caused by the sun and sun glare, the receiving lens will have auto-aperture. Also, the detector will be a m x n  focal-plane array of robust photo-sensors, each possessing great dynamic range (>6 decade), which should prevent complete blindness, i.e., it is unlikely that all photo detectors, in the array, will be overloaded. 

Limited data exchange bandwidth 
The data rates of this system will be limited by the bandwidth of the LED emitters, the optical receivers, on the other hand, are able to receive much faster emitters (several orders of magnitude faster). It would be desirable to establish a very high-speed channel that could receive data from high-speed LASER emitters at congested intersections where limited data rates might degrade the service and possibly compromise safety. This "Fast Channel" would accommodate faster emitters of the future. Also, a significant increase in data rates can be had by utilizing all three colors, of the traffic light, as emitters  (See also, Technology chapter,  Emitter section)

Infrequent network nodes 
This can be solved by installing many inexpensive, limited function, solar powered nodes. Some of these nodes do not require constant attachment to the network: scheduled polling is sufficient in most applications, with the ability to request immediate connection when warranted.

False Echoes
A  problem with any free-space communication system, is the problem of echoes or, in this case, reflections. Reflections with enough intensity will be treated as any incident signal and can cause errors relative to apparent vehicle zone position, resulting in an adverse effect on the capacity of the network to handle all of the exchanges. 

__________________________  Appendix  B    ____________________________

______________    A Review of Transmission Methods 

Buried Wire
Probably the most reliable approach is the buried wire concept. Where the wire buried in the roadway is used as an antenna for low frequency data communication to and from the vehicle. However, this approach has a prohibitive price tag. Because of the local nature of the data being exchanged, the number of nodes or cells attaching to the buried wire, would be voluminous. Also, the present "state of the Art" of burying wires in existing pavement, seems not well understood. Therefore the costs of installation and perpetual upkeep would be enormous.

Radio
Roadside radio (wireless) transponders is an approach that, like the buried wire, has the advantage of reliable operation in bad weather. However, it too suffers from high costs: by virtue of the need to cover many very small (local) areas or cells with data of local interest (e.g., intersections), it would require numerous transponders. Unlike the buried wire, it would be vulnerable to interference by all those, well understood, artifacts that effect all the other services using similar frequencies. 

One such artifact is unintended propagation or coverage. It is the nature of radio waves, in an environment of high-rise buildings, (or similar structures), to be reflected or "bounce" to other intersections, which could cause confusion with local traffic.

Microwaves
The microwave transponder approach has the advantage of being able to "see" through most bad weather; in some configurations, it can even detect  passive objects in the roadway. On the deficit side: every vehicle (>160 million) will be a microwave emitter; in a congested area there could be as many as several hundred microwave sources operating at once. To make order out of this babel while maintaining reliable operations, would require the microwave transponders, both on the vehicles and the network nodes, to be prohibitively complex and expensive. Also, the wavelength or band chosen will have to be a trade-off between the physical size of the device (antenna), effectiveness in bad weather, overall effectiveness, costs, etc. In addition, the amount of incident and reflected microwave radiation impinging on the average driver (and children) for prolonged periods, in various levels of congestion, may or may not be a real health hazard, but it will surely be perceived as one. Finally, all of these microwave emitters have the potential of wreaking havoc with the vast number of other services using similar microwave bands.

Ultrasonics
Ultrasonics is a technology that has the advantages of low costs, ease of installation, etc. On the deficit side: it has very limited range, limited data exchange bandwidth, limited effectiveness in bad weather,  multi-path interference (standing waves), etc.

Light Wave
Visible light modulated for data exchange is feasible: utilization of the existing (and soon to be) installed LED light sources used in auto tail lights and traffic lights, will afford significant savings in installed equipment costs. Photo optical sensors, for the receiving end, are relatively inexpensive. The data rates possible with this technology, while not the speed of microwaves, are more than adequate for the application. Even without the installed base of LED emitters, a cost effective system (one considerably cheaper than the equivalent microwave) using inexpensive diode  LASERs, is practical. Unlike microwaves, light waves will cause no interference to other services. The disadvantages of this technology is its inability to work reliably in heavy fog, very heavy rain and a heavy snow storm. It might be noted, however, this type of obscuration is considerably more pronounced in infrared (IR) or near infrared (NIR) systems than in visible light systems (655 nm). 

________________________  Appendix  C ____________________________

_______________    Vehicle Data Storage

There are several types of data in the vehicle's system: permanent (read only) hardwired data such as the Vehicle Identification Number, VIN#, which is entered at the time of manufacture and can never be changed; another type of data is non-volatile, which is on several levels of security. Access to these various levels, in the form of read-only and read/write transactions, is delineated among the appropriate  authorities, i.e., a police officer may look for wants and warrants or any restrictions, etc., but he may not write anything, except to "tag" a vehicle for a suspected violation. If the driver has a restricted driver's license, only DMV is allowed to write that data into your vehicle (this data can be downloaded to your vehicle via the network and/or written to the magnetic strip on your driver's license. The final level of data is volatile, this is basically temporary storage for information, messages, messages for relay, computer program store, etc.

Permanent Types of Data Stored in Vehicles
The Vehicle Identification Number, VIN #, is hardwired into the system at the time of manufacture and can not be changed.

 Temporary Data Stored in Vehicles
   Motor Vehicle Related Data:
- State license plate number, Tag #.
- Present owner's name and address.
- Insurance data.
- History of ownership.
 - Driver's restrictions (data only related to the identified driver presently operating the vehicle).
 - Outstanding wants and warrants (data related to the vehicle, its owner, the identified driver    presently operating the vehicle, or any driver listed in the vehicle's authorized drivers list).
- Owner's driving record (imbedded into the vehicle's data store and in the magnetic strip of    his/her driver's license's).
 - Present driver's driving record (information read from the driver's license, by the vehicle and    temporarily held in the vehicle's memory).
- Vehicle's inspection record.

 Vehicle Repair Record
All auto servicing information is logged into vehicle's computer by authorized dealer service personnel. Non-dealer service such as brakes, alignment, wheel balance, tires, etc., may also be logged in, but in a different area of the data store. This information is beneficial to disparate groups, including the owner. 

Some Available, Real-Time , Vehicle Parameters 
Present speed, speed history (Last n miles or m minutes, can be specified); Brake's status: braking or not braking, if braking, brake pressure in PSI, general braking efficiency (based on deceleration versus brake pressure), pad condition, miles on present pads, fluid temperature, fluid level, etc. If vehicle lighting system is in good working order, if headlights are on, exhaust quality, and history of exhaust quality (last n days or x weeks, as calculated from vehicle data such as oxygen sensor history, fuel consumption history and various other engine data). Horn: is it OK? is it blowing? Y/N (when the driver blows the horn, it will cause an interrupt to the network and send a request to transmit, which can be granted or at least noted by the network).

_________________________  Appendix  D  ____________________________

________________ Glossary

Broadcast
Broadcast is where, either the vehicle or the network node, transmits data or information "for-all-to-hear." Normal data exchanges use individual addresses to selectively communicate with specific vehicles (likewise a vehicle requesting a certain service, would send an address unique to that service); in broadcast mode, an address unique to all is sent. 

CHMSL
Center High Mount Stop Light. Sometimes referred to as HMSL.

Emitter 
For our discussion, an emitter is any optical device, LASER, LED, etc., that  operates in the visible spectrum (~ 500 nm to 900 nm) and is capable of transmitting data impressed on it at applicable data rates. 

Everybody-for-themselves mode
This is a mode that the vehicle goes into when its systems are not able to perform to some level of reliability. This "failure-to-perform," can be caused by anything from a catastrophic failure of hardware/software to severe weather, snow, ice, heavy fog, etc.

Fail-safe
Fail-safe is choosing the right (safest) default where a yes/no decision can go undecided. One "fail-safe," related to the control of a vehicle, is in giving "permission-to-go"  instead of "demanding-to-stop." If a driver were to "fix" their vehicle to not exchange data with the network, under the latter condition, all control over the vehicle would be lost. In the former case, the vehicle would run out of permission-to-go, go into maintenance mode and stop.

Fess-Up Mode
The "Fess-Up" mode is where the network or vehicle, informs all the appropriate drivers that the network, or vehicle, is confused or may have made an error and should be viewed skeptically until told otherwise, in other words, it confesses.

Maintenance Mode
Is a mode in which a vehicle's speed governor is invoked and progressively reduces the vehicle's maximum achievable speed--downwardly--until it reaches a maximum top speed of 5 MPH, which lasts for 5 minutes, and then stops the vehicle completely. This scenario allows the driver to get out of harm's way before the vehicle shuts down. 

Network 
Interconnected central authority.

Node 
Network's communications exchange point.

Tagged
A vehicle is "Tagged" by a law enforcement officer or, in some situations, by the network, for some violation. When one is tagged, two things happen: first the violation is written into the vehicle's read/write nonvolatile memory; secondly, the vehicle will constantly broadcast the fact that it is tagged and where it is and the nature of the violation.

VIN#
Vehicle Identification Number

_________________________  Appendix  E  ____________________________

Ethics Related to Design Philosophy
This project should have certain immutable laws (like the three laws of robotics). These laws should relate to the driving public's health and safety, being first and foremost. 

Autonomy:
In the case of a railroad crossing, where the driver is trying to make a decision relative to crossing or not crossing, if he/she is given all the information they feel they need, along with a suggested course of action, they are apt to make the right decision--on average. However, if the driver chooses to do something that is a certainty to be dangerous or harmful to themselves or others: as a last resort the driver should be prevented from doing the wrong thing. This is a tough call, the computer could make the right logical decision and still harm someone: its a lose lose situation.

Mistakes
The network or vehicle should never give the driver the wrong information. However, it inevitably will; when it detects that it may have made an error, it defaults to the "Fess-Up mode," and admit it was wrong and suggests a proper course of action, and failing that just warns the driver to beware.

Appendix F 



Political Dimensions of IVHS

The IVHS concept, as in any centralized regulatory entity, has enormous political dimensions and exerts first-order influences on its final form. These influences range from the ACLU's view as a constitutional issue relating to privacy; to MADD's view of it as a tool in their fight against DWI. In other words, the political influences should be seen in the context of both pro and con, relative to the acceptance and expedition of such a major project. 

It is rarely the best technical solution that is chosen, but the solution that will fly politically--and nobody can tell you what that is! However, the IVHS is too important a concept to not put forth the required effort; to work diligently with great technical rigor and political aplomb.
 

_______________  Some of the Issues per sa, being neither pro nor con, are the following:

Privacy 
Privacy of information or access to personal data is one of the most hotly debated issues, and one of the most abused. Even if guarantees of security of personal information are promised, few will believe, and, for good reason. To be successful in overcoming this issue, an authority will have to enact and strictly adhere too, an ethic of constitutional proportions. This will require the enforcement of need-to-know rules that are written in law and enforcement without exception (with selected visibility of such enforcement). 

Autonomy 
Big Brother is alive and well. The freedom of the individual to go unmolested, either physically or emotionally, is a freedom that will not go undefended--and should not. There are legitimate concerns about using restrictive laws to curb the worst of us. It even gets more involved when law-abiding citizens are restricted, "for their own good." In other words, you should have the freedom to run the risk of head-injury by not having to ware a safety helmet. No matter that the public has to pay the bill (all but 1% of motorcycle head injuries); in medical costs, public assistance, lost productivity, etc. That is the nature of the beast, and an accommodation with this cultural milieu is in order.

Safety Issues
What happens when the system fails? Thousands of lives will be saved and hundreds of thousands of injuries will be prevented: but if there is one tragic, highly publicized error of the system, that incident, alone, will have great power. Even if the "blame" is not totally the system's, it is that perception that can do great damage. The damage can quickly take on real dimensions, i.e., loss of faith in the system's reliability could have a profoundly tragic outcome.

Monopoly 
These days restraint of trade issues are based more and more on technicalities and endlessly linked legal precedents, as well as on egalitarian dogma. What is good for the American public is forgotten in the "great fight." Cooperation between government and industry is essential, enlightened self interest for the                                                                      public-good should be the mandate, not confrontation.

Regulatory Jurisdiction 
Because of the wide spectrum of functions of such a system: whose responsibility is its supervision? Is it only a transportation entity; where does law enforcement's interests enter in or Federal Highway, etc.? 

 

 
 
 
 

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