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"Kind Words"
To everyone who took the time to write and Comment on, and or make Suggestions on our Web Site, 
Thank You.
From: "John Stoler" <jstoler@wtp.net> 
To: <gaw@eos.ncsu.edu> 
Subject: WWW page response 
Date: Sun, 16 Nov 1997 10:53:50 -0700 


Kudos on a fine (read: excellent) piece of web construction. 
I have been around since the dino and have evaluated a book or two in my 
days, but as far as teaching goes, I have not evolved nearly as far as yourself. 
The electronics tutorial is not just well done, it is a credit as to what we should be looking for on the www. 

I showed your page to my wife and tried to explain to her how this type of 
work will eventually transend the garbage currently being force fed to the 
populace (down with Lotus!!!) 

Good luck with your web authoring and best of luck. 

       John Stoler 

      ARS:  NF7W 

Date: Sat, 27 Dec 1997 05:56:31 -0500 
To: gaw@eos.ncsu.edu 
From: Robert Shields <rshields@vt.edu> 
Subject: Love your ECE 480 Site! 

Hello Dr. Williamson, 

 My name is Robert Shields and I am writing to encourage you to keep up 
the good work.  I am a recent Electrical Engineering graduate of Virginia 
Tech in Blacksburg, VA and happened to come across your wonderful site 
(http://www3.ncsu.edu/ECE480/).  The explanations and illustrations of 
engineering concepts are superb!  The site has so much "life" even without 
background sound ... I spent so much time on the site that I had to write 
and express my gratitude for such an enjoyable Internet experience. 


Robert Shields 

From: "Dan" <dsfleming@home.com> 
To: <gaw@eos.ncsu.edu> 
Subject: Love it! 
Date: Mon, 11 May 1998 21:48:59 -0700 

Your web site is exactly what I have been looking for, for a long time now. 
 It is very explanatory without going into "way over my head" technical 
lingo.  I can finally understand what's going on.  Thanks and keep up the 
good work. 

I will let you know if there is anything I would like to see that's not 

Thanks again 
Dan Fleming 

From: "Josh Logan" <jlogan@bewellnet.com> 
To: <gaw@eos.ncsu.edu> 
Subject: ECE 480 
Date: Sat, 6 Jun 1998 06:45:52 -0600 

Your site is really great !!!! 

Josh Logan N7XM   in Colorado 

Date: Thu, 04 Jun 1998 17:26:00 -0700 
From: "Brian P. Wilson" <bwilson@seanet.com> 
To: gaw@eos.ncsu.edu 
Subject: Wow! 

My goodness!  I came across your site when doing some research for a 
presentation I have to give in my ENGR 333 class. 

I will certainly be visiting your site again when I have more time.  I'm 
still a little awestruck at the quantity and quality of the material you 
have to offer. 


To: gaw@eos.ncsu.edu 
Date: Mon, 01 Jun 1998 04:53:46 -0700 
From: "Robert A. Huber" <bob.huber@mailexcite.com> 
Subject: 555 timer 


I visited your website today and got a real boost in my web interest. 

If possible, can you answer one question about the 555 for me? 
I am trying to produce a delay circuit with the 555 and need the output NOT to change unless no input occurs for time longer than the output time. 
In short I want the one-shot to be retriggerable. 

Thank you, and best regards 
Bob Huber KC8JUL 

513 398 1550 
943 Cambridge 
mason, ohio 45040 

Date: Wed, 12 Nov 1997 14:01:19 -0600 
From: "Larry L. Ward" <LLW@selu.edu> 
Subject: web page 
To: gaw@eos.ncsu.edu 

Dear sir, 
You've got a great! web page.........best I've seen yet. 

Larry L. Ward 
Southeastern Louisiana University 
Hammond, La. 70402 


From: Jim Kehler <kh2d@kuentos.guam.net>
To: "'gaw@eos.ncsu.edu'" <gaw@eos.ncsu.edu> 
Subject: Web Page 
Date: Tue, 12 May 1998 13:57:16 -0000 

Hi Glen, 
   I happend to find your web page, and I think it's one of the most 
interesting ones I've seen.  I'm a ham radio operator, but I'm not 
an electronics engineer, and I find your pages very informative. 
I'm at the point in my ham career (25+ years) where I finally have 
some time to sit down and build a few simple things, and the basic 
info you have about transistors, the 555 chip, etc., I find very 
   Right now I'm trying to design a sort of VOX circuit, not having 
much luck, but having lots of fun and getting lots of solder on the 
   I think I saw somewhere on you page that you metiioned you 
were a ham also. 

73, Jim KH2D 
Mariana Islands DX Association - http://www.guam.net/pub/midxa/ 

Date: Wed, 10 Dec 1997 21:57:17 -0500 
From: Joseph Michael Hensley <jmhensl1@eos.ncsu.edu> 
To: gaw@eos.ncsu.edu 
Subject: thanks 

This page is really cool.  I did my 480 project on Gilbert Cell 
Modulator.  Thanks for the neat stuff. 


Date: Fri, 17 Apr 1998 14:55:02 -0400 
From: "E. Carranza" <edgardoc@ascpowr.ascent.ca> 
To: gaw@eos.ncsu.edu 
Subject: Your web page 

I would like to congratulate you on such an amzing web page 
that you are created. 
I like all the animations, they simplify the learning process very much. 
I hope that you keep this web page growing as it would be very sad 
to see such good material disappear. 
I am sure that this take a lot of your time to mantain, but you are 
doing an excellent job. 


Edgardo carranza 
Power Supply Design Technologist 
Toronto, Canada. 

Date: Sat, 11 Apr 1998 20:35:25 EDT 
To: gaw@eos.ncsu.edu 

Subject: Re: 555 timer 

Thanks that answered my question perfectly.  I am using a 555 timer and some D flip flops for a computer engeering project and the drawing in the book was hard to understand.  Thanks for all of your help 


Date: Sun, 29 Mar 1998 15:27:22 EST 
To: gaw@eos.ncsu.edu 

Subject: Website 

Mr. Williamson 
I just finished viewing your website, very impressive.  It has been difficult to find information on electronics on the web.  Your website seems to cover many details on the subject. I am bookmarking your site for future visits. 
Keep up the good work and please, please keep it free. 
Thank You 
Mark G 

From: "Bill Thomas" <mouse1@raex.com> 
To: <gaw@eos.ncsu.edu> 
Subject: Thank-you 
Date: Sat, 28 Mar 1998 20:28:32 -0500 

Just a note to extend my thanks to you for a great site concerning 555. 
Well done... 

Bill Thomas 


Date: Sun, 05 Jul 1998 11:43:42 -0700 
From: Irvine Bernard Rogers <irogers@direct.ca> 
To: gaw@eos.ncsu.edu 

TO: Glen A. Williamson 


15 sec to conserve battery), 




RESPECTFULLY,                    IRVINE B. ROGERS 

Date: Thu, 25 Jun 1998 11:55:30 -0400 
From: "Andrew O'Malley" <aomalle@ee.ryerson.ca> 
Organization: Ryerson Polytechnic University 
To: gaw@eos.ncsu.edu 

Hello . . . 

I needed the 555 data sheet, so I did a web search, and your site came 
up first on the list, and I found everything I needed . . . Checked out 
a bit more of your site, and found it all very well put together. 

Definately excellent! 

                  ++  // 
                  ++  // 
                  ++  // 
                  ++  // 
  ||||||||||||||||++  //||||||||||||||||| 
                  ++  // 
                  ++  // 
                  ++  // 
                  ++  // 

  "If no one's laughing, you can bet they've been paid 
   not to find out what's going on." 

From - Wed Jun 24 15:44:38 1998 
From: "Norman, Russ" <Russ_Norman@mukilteo.hac.com> 
To: gaw@eos.ncsu.edu 
Subject: Your 555 Timer Web page! 

I am an engineering aide with Raytheon Systems Company and was having a 
problem with a delay generator circuit one of our engineers had designed.  Through a web search I found your site and I must say it was quite helpful.  It turned out we had forgotten the differentiator on the input to both stages to the LM 556.  Once installed it worked as advertised!  Thanks for the wonderful site, you saved our project several hundred dollars! 

Russ Norman, 
Senior Engineering Aide, 
Raytheon Systems Company 

Date: Sun, 14 Jun 1998 22:17:04 -0700 
From: "Derek D. Bass" <ddbass@mysurf.com> 
To: gaw@eos.ncsu.edu 
Subject: Laser Microphones 

Mr. Williamson, 

I've been reading various pages about Laser Microphones and their 
practicality and portability, and I was wondering, given the variety of 
Microphone schematics given on your site, what your personal findings 
were as to the kind of fidelity you could expect with any of them. I'm 
writing a fiction piece based upon 'Weird Science' (the genre, not the 
movie), and I'd like to know what is possible in reality before I take 
it a couple of steps further. Actually, I was hypothesizing about such a 
device, and decided to look on the Internet to see if there was anyone 
else working on the same idea. It was kinda nice to see this sort of 
thing in a 400-level class in Electrical Engineering, since my own 
schooling is in Psychology. I'm starting to ramble now, so I'll go. Any 
response (excluding profanity and obscenity) would be most welcome, and 
I thank you in advance for your time. 


Derek D. Bass 

P.S. That's a nice site on Laser Microphones you've got there. That's 
why I wrote you in the first place. 

Date: Wed, 15 Apr 1998 15:59:14 -0400 
To: gaw@eos.ncsu.edu 
From: "Renard A. Dellafave" <radellaf@4pi.com> 
Subject: Hello from a recent alum 

I graduated Dec. 96 (BSEE,SCL) and have been working for a small 
electronics firm ( http://www.4pi.com ) for almost a year now. 

I found your ECE480 pages while looking for an online data sheet for the 
NE555, seeing as how the ones here are probably a decade old.  Interesting 
trick with the AC coupled trigger, but tolerances will be tight if I try to 
get 2.5uS pulses out of a chain of 555 monostables.  Maybe too tight. 

Anyway, I browsed on to your decoupling page, and had a suggestion/question 
about the LC power filter arrangement you show on the amplifier cascade. 
Would it not be better to use a "star" configuration where the high side of 
each L is connected to the power supply? 
The design as shown would provide a larger inductance for the sensitive 
first amp, though, at lower cost than using five different value inductors. 
As always with BDSG, there are many options, often with no clear one 
standing out as superior - hence it getting the name "black magic" so often. 

Well, anyway, while I don't miss the rest of college, I do miss the 
informative lectures, and reading your webpages has shown me a few things, 
reminded me of a few more, and if nothing else, made me think.  Thanks for 
having 'em. 


Date: Tue, 24 Mar 1998 19:51:39 -0600 
To: gaw@eos.ncsu.edu 
From: Jonathan Newman <jnewman@mailhost.tcs.tulane.edu> 
Subject: suggestion for http://www3.ncsu.edu/ECE480/480_555.htm 

great site.  Very helpful.  I think you should add some more uses for the 
555 and include formulas. 


Date: Wed, 25 Mar 1998 00:00:00 -0600 
To: "Glen A. Williamson" <gaw@eos.ncsu.edu> 
From: Jonathan Newman <jnewman@mailhost.tcs.tulane.edu> 
Subject: Re: suggestion for http://www3.ncsu.edu/ECE480/480_555.htm 

I wasn't expecting a reply so quickly.  Could I trouble you just a bit? 
I'm playing with using 2 555s to generate a PWM waveform, and I'm not 
really getting anywhere.  The first timer works fine generating a carrier. 
The second isn't exactly modulating it too well.  Let me know if this is 
not your area of interest.  Thanks again for the great site. 


From: "Fadi Awaida" <fadi.a@cyberia.net.lb> 
To: <gaw@eos.ncsu.edu> 
Subject: Admire ! 
Date: Fri, 6 Mar 1998 16:15:07 +0200 

Dear Mr. Williamson, 

I heared of your internet page from a friend of mine in San Fransisce and 
I checked it.  Simply, it was my dream page - just what I needed!!! 
I am a computer engineering student and i'm about to graduate this year, 
God willing.  I thought you might help me since i am a part of an important 
project which is to build an FM Radio station for the whole University!!! 
It is a big project that has many parts and many persons working in it. 

The group that is working on that project is a respectable group in my 
university and is known as the "Engineering Society" and is funded by the 

university.  It's members are computer and electrical engineers. 
Your assistance will be reported to our dean and will show on our papers 
and project. 

So, please, help us in finding the right schematics and diagrams. 
Also, I want to know if you do "sell" the circuit parts (all kinds of 
resistors, capacitors, transistors, op amps,.....etc). 

I'll be waiting your answer on that so please take us into concideration. 
And if you feel you don't have time for that please feel comfortable to 
say it "quickly" because we are limited in time. 

Thank you, sir. 

adi w. awada 

Date: Fri, 09 Jan 1998 16:28:06 -0500 
From: Christopher Bruno <bruno@ICD.Teradyne.COM> 
To: gaw@eos.ncsu.edu 
Subject: Suggestion 

Hello Glen, 

Your web page is fantastic.  I'm an ME with a Master's 
from Worcester Polytechnic Institute and I think your 
electronics information is most valuble.  However, I 
think there is an error on your page. 
        On 480_base.html I think you will find that 
one of the equations in the Ohm's law table is 
incorrect.  That is, the one that say P=I^2/R 
should read P=I^2 * R. 

Just trying to help! 

Christopher Bruno 
321 Harrison Ave. MS/H63 
Boston, MA 02118 
617.422.2040 Office 
617.422.2304 Fax 


Guest Book  --Kind Words
Date: 02/13/98 13:56:59 
Name: Robert Bowles 
E-mail: bowlesrl@ccgate.eielson.af.mil 
Homepage URL: eielson.af.mil 

Opinion of site: Very Good 

A very good resource for information on electronic principles..... 
I hope you can continue to maintain this site as well as expand it.... 

Date: 02/26/98 07:24:14 
Name: Brian Hammill 
E-mail: brianh@exide.com 
Homepage URL: www.ipass.net/~hammill 

Opinion of site: Very Good 

Date: 02/27/98 16:59:43 
Name: Victor Jacobs 
Opinion of site: Very Good 

I wanted to say this website is great. It is very educational and usefull. 
I am currently working very hard to transfer to the Computer Engineering Dept. at NC State. 
I have read about the excellent methods in which the department teaches its students, and I can't wait to attend the University. 

Date: 03/21/98 03:26:19 
Name: Rainer Ekstrand 
E-mail: postmaster@puppe.pp.fi 

Opinion of site: Very Good 

Date: 03/24/98 20:30:51 
Name: Jonathan Newman 
E-mail: jnewman@mailhost.tcs.tulane.edu 

Opinion of site: Very Good 

Great site. 
My whole Junior EE class at Tulane uses your site to remind us of all the things we could have learned in circuits and electronics. 

Date: 04/15/98 15:14:35 
Name: Renard A. DellaFave 
E-mail: radellaf@usa.net 
Homepage URL: <none> 

Opinion of site: Very Good 

sent separately in email 

Date: 05/14/98 12:40:00 
Name: Michael J. Benns 
E-mail: chemdiff 
Homepage URL: na 

Opinion of site: No answer 

How did you get a piicture of my home phone for "Net Tips" After 20 minutes, this site made "Favorite Places" 
Have not seen all, plans are to do so Further thoughts will be forthcoming 

Date: 05/14/98 12:57:41 
E-mail: chemdiff 
Opinion of site: No answer 

Pretty dad gum neat!!! (I will get tto communication, personal later) And a better keyboard. 

Date: 06/09/98 15:31:56 
Name: Sterling C Nicholson 
E-mail: snichol5@ford.com 

Opinion of site: Very Good 

This site was recommended by our Electronics Division supervisor to bookmark for reference. 
I found it very interesting. good job !! 

Date: 06/15/98 10:10:06 
Name: Jason MCcue 
E-mail: jwmccu01@homer.louisville.edu 
Homepage URL: Jason@McCue.net 

Opinion of site: Very Good 

Good source of info! 

Date: 06/23/98 13:01:29 
Name: Alan de Schweinitz 
E-mail: alan_des@digitan.com 
Homepage URL: www.digitan.com 

Opinion of site: Perfect 

I am a practicing engineer with 30 years experience. 
This is an excellent use of the internet with a great amount of useful information for anyone at any career level. 
Keep up the good work! 
I was looking for a way to search your site by content--lots of good stuff plus the pictures make it outstanding. 

Date: 06/29/98 12:04:16 
Name: Thomas C. Sefranek 
E-mail: tcs@cmcorp.com 
Homepage URL: http://hamradio.cmcorp.com/ 

Opinion of site: Very Good 

This is probably the best site I've seen for explaining the basics! 
I teach, and I appreciate the time and effort!I'll be sending my students to this site! 
Truly a great site! 


Some Questions & Answers
Date: Mon, 08 Dec 1997 17:47:00 +0000 
Subject: NTSC info 
To: gaw@eos.ncsu.edu ('Glen A Williamson') 

Hi there. An employee of mine visited your website and picked up your paper 
on RS-170 standards. It should prove to be very helpful in educating some of my test technicians ( and myself for that matter.) 
I have a question on the color burst portion of the signal that I have not 
found the answer to in my travels. Is there a requirement for this signal to 
remain phase locked to the  RS-170 signal on which it rides? In other words, if I were to look at a standard RS-170 signal on an oscilloscope, would the 
color burst portion of the waveform remain stationary, or would it appear to be in motion? 
We build a product that encodes RGBS video into NTSC. The local color burst 
oscillator in this product is not phase locked to each line of the output 
signal, although it does,of course, maintain a given phase relationship to 
the chroma portion of the signal. I have found that some of our test 
monitors display some artifacts that appear to be related to the beat 
frequency of the color burst in relation to the RS-170 signal. I noticed 
that our test generators signal is phase locked, but this is due to the fact that their color burst oscillator drives the counter that generates the RGB 
outputs. I have not gone through the bother of phase locking tha local 
oscillator since I didn't know if it would help the circuit performance. Any 
insight you could provide would be greatly appreciated. 

Joe Fischer : fsr!jwf@attmail.com 



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