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with DWSP (Distributed Weapons Sensors Platform)
Piggybacking Sensors on Fleet Vehicles
A Method for the Detection of Clandestine Weapons and Materials

Example: Utilizing Very Large MultiSensor Arrays in Mobile
Detection Systems while Hitchhiking on Tractor Trailer Rigs
.Note: This approach is intended for all WMDs; however, we will focus on Nuclear and Radiological only.---
WMD Hunting Technology History Glossary Links
pdf Version pdf Version
Factors influencing Detection----------Features that can Improve Detection
The purpose of the web page is to suggest the concept of nationwide use of existing Transportation Infrastructure, i.e., fleet vehicles as unattended sensor platforms for WMD surveillance. My personal goal in writing this page is to communicate this concept to those in position to best evaluate it, and possibly benefit from its use.
Proviso:  All ideas on this and all other CBR pages (on this site) that aren't protected, or is not Prior Art, I hereby deem to be in the Public Domain, that is, I claim no ownership of same. This is done by way of not inhibiting public use.    Glen A.Williamson   6/09/2005

"GOOGLE Street View Cars To Be Fitted With Sensors to Map Air Pollution..."

This seems like a Perfect Fit for WMD Hunting Also! __Just Saying...


1)_ Proposed is a nationwide system where by autonomous WMD sensor packages would be installed on various commercial fleet vehicles, such as semi-trailers, trains, taxicabs, police cars, etc. These autonomous sensor packages would essentially be piggybacking on vehicles, requiring little, if any, driver interaction.

2)_ Due to the difficulty of detecting clandestine nuclear materials, it is imperative that this system use the latest, and most effective detection devices available, regardless of costs.

3)_ The ubiquitous and random nature of the installed systems described in this paper will put powerful Nuclear (CBR*) Detectors in an infinitely greater number of locations than would otherwise be the case, and at almost no recurring operating costs.

4)_ The success of such a system depends on the voluntary cooperation of the Transportation Industry.  Companies that field vehicles meeting system requirements[1] would be approached confidentially for their cooperation. See vehicle stats

5)_ Collected data would consists of all sensor data, GPS location, and optionally, concurrent CCTV video, and would be transmitted--in realtime--via satellite, and/or cellular modem, to an analysis and dissemination center.  For redundancy, the data would also be processed and stored locally. See system block

-----------------------------------Factors influencing Detection of Nuclear Materials-
-----------------------------------Features that can Improve Detection-

* CBRNE: Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, Explosive, A.K.A., NBC: Nuclear, Biological, Chemical.--
Distributed Weapons Sensors Platform  (DWSP)

  1)_ "Free Ride" for WMD Sensors 
Piggybacking/Hitchhiking WMD sensors on existing Commercial Fleet Vehicles, tracter trailers, taxicabs, trains, etc., will greatly reduce capital outlays, speed up the deployment of such sensors, with operating costs already borne by operators. 
     a.. Commercial Fleet Operators Participation 
      Fleet operators are encouraged to voluntarily participate; incentives such as payment schedules based on percentage of space used, weight, mileage, downtime, etc.

  2)_ Autonomous Sensor Packages 
System will need little or no driver intervention while having no substantial effect on the vehicle's operation or carrying capacity. 

  3)_ Remote Access and Supervision
Remote Access and Supervision for, 2 way, Real Time live intervention (including CCTV), allowing situation specific--intelligent decision making. Also, this allows remote troubleshooting, repair, re-configuration, software updating, etc.  more

  4)_ CBRNE Sensors
The sensor packages are for the detection of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive (CBRNE) weapons or materials. more(for simplicity,  we cover only Radiological and Nuclear)

  5)_ System Components 
     a.. The System is highly configurable, accommodating a wide range of sensor types. 
     b.. RTOS Embedded Controller, with local protected "shadow" storage. 
     c.. Navigation, GPS-Aided-INS. 
     d.. Communications via Sat-Com, Cellular, WiFi, WAN, etc., 
     e.. Link to the national Distributed Sensor Network (DSN), e.g., SensorNet®
     f.. Connection (optional) to Vehicle’s IVMS electronics package.  more

  6)_ Distributed Sensor Network
For near Realtime Reporting and Alerting, this system can be part of the nation's Distributed Sensor Network (DSN), e.g., SensorNet® being developed by ORNL et al.

  7)_ Radiological/Nuclear Detector Types
Radiological/nuclear detectors range from passive Gamma Ray and Neutron detectors, to active X-Ray and Gamma Ray Radiography, to Induced Fission, the most effective (and invasive),  Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA).

  8)_ Exposure Time Extension from moving Sensor Array
The Sequential Scan of Detector Panels, with data integration, significantly lengthens the effective exposure time to radiological sources from a moving vehicle.  more

  9)_ CBRNE Slipstream Sampling
CBRNE Slipstream Sampling ("Sniffer") sensors sampling accumulated stagnant air in vehicle Slipstream (Draft): Gap between Tractor and Trailer, and the Aft Area of the Trailer.  more

10)_ Background Count Inventory 
Inventorying background radiation for a nationwide GIS baseline database, will improve detectability of R/N sources (subtraction from RAW readings improving SNR).  more

IVMS:  Intelligent Vehicle Management System
Some of the Vehicles for the Mission
Sensor Equipped Fleet Vehicles:
Police Car, Mail Truck, Taxicab, etc.
NucSafe's Car Top Sensor Package

Containers as Sensor Platforms
Rail-borne Sensor Platform

 Container Trucks & Terminal
Sensor Equipped Semi-trailer "Taking the Measure"
--------Some U.S. F leet Vehicle Statistics----2002
Of  ~4.1 million Single Unit Trucks, 690 thousand meet system requirements. In 2002 these trucks traveled approximately 9.9 billion vehicle-miles traveled (vmt).

Of  ~1.4 million Semi Trailer Trucks, 730 thousand meet system requirements. In 2002 these trucks traveled approximately 60 billion vehicle-miles traveled (vmt).

There are ~ 435,000 Taxicabs operating in the US.   [Estimate]
In 1999 Taxicabs traveled approximately 27.6 billion vehicle-miles traveled (vmt).   [Estimate]

-Very Large Nuclear Detector Arrays-

Large Airborne Detector Array
Road Side Detector Array

Animation Depicting Sequential Scan of Detector Panels
and data integration, enabling Virtual Stationary view points
Note: for clarity, only two panels are shown.----
Mouse-Over image for animation
Example: system of 18 panels, each measuring 9 feet high, 2 feet wide and 4 inches thick..
Animation Explanation
Virtual Exposure Time Extension 
Due to the probabilistic nature of Nuclear Event counting, detector sensitivity is directly affected by Count Collection Time. The longer the detector is allowed to count a source, the more accurate the measurement, improving the chances for detection.

As the speed of a monitoring vehicle increases, the system sensitivity decreases, reducing the likelihood of detecting weak sources. 

'Rotary' Panel Exchange
One way to help compensate for this effect is to cause each detector array panel to appear to remain stationary during transit of the trailer. This can be accomplished by sampling the contiguous panels such that an adjacent panel always replaces the panel moving out of view. All this happens at a rate commensurate with the vehicle speed. Said another way, it's a little like panning a camera at a moving object.  See the animation

Vehicle Slipstream CBRNE Particle Collection System
An ideal sampling point for CBRNE traces is in the accumulated stagnant 
air of the vehicle Slipstream. Where trace material tends to stay longer.-
Sample Collection Points
 Gap between Tractor and Trailer
 Trailer Aft Area
   Radiological  [Radio Isotopes: Cobalt-60 and Cesium-137, etc.] (Dirty Bomb)
   Nuclear  [Weapons Grade Uranium, Wg Plutonium]  (Nuclear Bomb)

Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU), WgU Weapons Grade Uranium
[Alpha Particles, Beta Particles, Gamma Rays, Neutrons]

Sniff, Sniffer, Stagnant, 
Slipstream (an area of reduced air pressure and forward suction immediately behind a rapidly moving vehicle), 
Draft (a pocket of reduced air pressure behind a moving object), 
Vortex (circular motion that tends to form a cavity or vacuum in the center), Vortices, Eddies, 

Block Diagram of System Command, Control, and Communications (C3 )  w/DSN
Vehicle System Block Diagram
System for Radiation Detection, Data gathering, Data Storage and Data Transmission, with Local and Centralized Analysis. (note Cellular modem for redundancy)
"Antenna Farm"-
Trailer mounted Satellite, GPS, and Cellular, Antennas
 GIS Data Collection and Correlation 
w/ Background Count Inventory-
Map overlayed with tracking and sensor data (2 vehicles). Note the green squares are areas of interest. 


Optional Extras
 -Real Time Remote Operation Supervision-
In situations where time is of the essence, live intervention is an option.
Closed Circuit TV (CCTV) is also an option that can point intelligent decision making in an instant.

Complete System Configuration, and upgrade is possible.

Remote Operational Intervention-
-Survey of Nuclear Detectors
[1] System Requirements
The minimum requirements for fleet vehicles to participate have mostly to do with minimum expected mileage, the randomness of routes traveled, the amount of in-vehicle real-estate available for the instrumentation. 

As an incentive and to be equitable, there should be a fee structure of payments to the operators based on: mileage, downtime due to system repairs, type of vehicle, and the number of participating vehicles per operator, etc.

WMD, NBC, CBR, CBRNE, Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, Explosive, Uranium, Plutonium, Compton Effect, Compton Imager, Clandestine Weapon, Gamma Camera, Scintillation Counter, Geiger Counter, Radiological Survey, HPGe, Scintillator, Nal(TI), Pulse Height Spectrum, Isotope, Nuclide, Alpha, Beta, Gamma Ray, Neutron, Photon, Electron, Proton, positron, MeV, Inverse Square Law, Neutron Activation Analysis, (NAA), Fleet Vehicles, Trucking & Courier Services, Motor Carrier, Tractor Trailer, Semi Trailer, Trailer Truck, Freight Motor Carrier, Rail, Container Car, Container, highway surveilance, homeland security, neutron detector, nuclear materials, Distributed Sensor Network, DSN,  SensorNet, 
WMD Hunting Technology History Glossary Links
pdf Version pdf Version
Factors influencing Detection----------Features that can Improve Detection

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